Duhok (Dohuk, Dehok, Dahok) is in the far north-west where Syria, Turkey and Iraq meet. Therefore, it occupies an area of great strategic importance, at the present time and historically. In the surrounding hills and caves, remains have been found that proves this historical importance. Duhok is situated in a valley surrounded by an area of the most wonderful natural beauty which includes mountains (White, Mamseen and Shindokha) and rivers (Kuhok and Hishkarow). No wonder that its tourist industry is growing rapidly.
In ancient times, it was an Assyrian town named Naarda and there are many historically important places to visis.
Malathya Hill: has great archaeological importance. Earthenware from Assyrian times, lies on its surface.
Halamata Cave: this cave is found at the foot of Shindokha Mountain. There are four pictures carved into the walls of the cave. Seven Assyrian gods (Ashur, Anilil, Seen, Sun, Ishtar and Adid) riding sacred animals, lead by the King are depicted in each picture. It is thought that these pictures are to remember triumphant military battles.
Duhok Castle: during the reign of Sultan Hassan Beck Bin Al-Emir, Duhok joined the Badinan Emirate (1376-1843) and the murder of one of the princes of Badinan took place here. For more information Kurdish Guide working all details about in a future.
Chewar Stoon Settlement (cave): there are remains of a very ancient settlement here to include evidence of five torches along the road leading through a tunnel to the main temple. The temple is carved out of thick rock and symbols of five gods line the path to the temple: the Age God, the Moon God, the Sun God, Ishtar and Zirwan.For more information Kurdish Guide working all details about in a future.
Erbil, also known as Hawler and also spelled as Irbil or Arbil, is the one of the main towns in the Kurdish Autonomous Region and is steeped in history. It is thought to be one of the world’s, if not the world’s, oldest towns that has been continuously lived in. Urbillum, an ancient Sumarian city and Arbela an ancient Assyrian city, were located here. The oldest part of modern Erbil, the Citadel, is right in the heart of the city and stands on an artificial mound about 30 metres high. This mound was formed due to new buildings being built on top of old buildings, time and time again over a very long period of time. Just imagine the layers and layers of archaeological history that must be buried in that mound. The houses are reached by very narrow alleyways that branch out from the main gate to the south and around two thirds of these houses have very important architectural and cultural interest as do some of the public buildings. This site also boasts 3 mosques, 7 historical graves, a hammam (public bath) and also open spaces in which to relax. It is extremely important to try and preserve the Citadel for future generations and to this end, an agreement was signed in 2007, with UNESCO, which will advise on how best to restore this wonder.
One of the the better known historical events which took place about 60 miles (100 kil) west of Erbil, was the Battle of Gaugamela (also known as Battle of Arbela) when Alexander the Great defeated Darius III in 331 BC.
Minaret of the Great Mosque, also known as Minaret of the Madrasa of al Muzaffar or Minaret of the mosque of al-Muzaffar which was built in 1190 by Muzaffar al-Din Abu Sa’eed al-Kawkaboori, who was the King of Arbil.
Martyr Sami Abdurrahman Park boasts lovely gardens, lakes where speedboat rides are offered, children’s playgrounds, cafes and a minature railway. The land it was built on has a less happy side – it used to contain on of Saddam’s detention centre’s. The park is named after Sami Abdurrahman, the former Kurdish Prime Minister who was killed, along with about 100 others, in a suicide bombing and a monument to these dead is in the centre of the park. An inscription on this monument says “Freedom is not Free”. How very true.
Shanidar Park and Art Gallery – Erbil’s first permanent exhibition space.
The Qaysari Bazaar – one of the oldest in the world, is huge and sells everything.
Fountain Square – in the heart of the Bazaar, is a main focal point. The fountain is lit up at night and changes colours and photographers will try and get you to have your photo taken.
For more information about Erbil city visit Hawler
شوێنی جوگرافی ههولێر
شاری ههولێر دهكهوێته نێوان هێڵی پانی ٣٥,٤٥ – ٣٧ پله و هێڵی درێژی ٤٣-٤٥ پله له باكوری عێراقدا و شارێكی گهوره و سهرهكی ناوهڕاستی ههرێمی كوردستانه. ههروهها شارهكه دهكهوێته ناوهندی ناوچهیهكی به پیت كه لهسهر بانێكی پان و بهرین ههڵكهوتووه و ئهم بـــانهش دهوروبهری (١٣٠٠) پێ له ئاستی رووی دهریاوه بهرزه و هێڵی دابهشكردنی ئــاو بهسهر ههردوو ڕووباری زێی گهوره و زێی بچووك له ناوچهكهدا پێكدههێنێ.
دهشتاییهكهی دهوری قهڵای ههولێریش به (١٣٣٢) پێ له ئاستی ڕووی دهریا بهرزتره. بهرزی قهڵاكهش جگه له خانووهكانی دهوروبهری (٢٥) مهتر دهبێت.
پۆلیسی هاتوو چۆی ههولێر
میژووی شــاری هـــهولـــێر
Kirkuk (Kerkuk, Karkuk) is a city known around the world probably only because of it’s vast oil reserves and some say that, because of it’s oil, it could become the richest city in the world. Unfortunately, that has meant that its history has been complicated. However, we are not interest in the politics. We are hoping to put together information which may encourage people to visit this historical city.
Kirkuk is located in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains and is divided into two parts by the River Khas Jai. An important tributary of the River Tigris is also nearby (about 45 kil) from the centre. The Citadel (Kirkuk Castle) on which Kirkuk stands, is thought to be about 5,000 years old and was once the ancient Assyrian capital of Arrabkha.
Things to see
Kirkuk Castle (Citadel): the Red Church is one of the most prominent buildings here but it also contains many shrines, the shrine of Prophet Daniel being just one of them, several mosques including the Great Mosque and old houses which were not known by numbers but were known by the names of the people who owned them. It also has markets which have been famous since ancient times. There must be a lot of historical information buried here which could unlock many secrets about the history of the city.
Yorgan Tepe (ancient name was Nuzi): an archaeological site on the outskirts of the city. It was an important Hurrian city and flourished during the second millennium BC.
Qal’at Jarmo: an archaeological site on the outskirts of the city. It dates back to 7000 BC and for a long time it was thought to be the oldest agricultural community in the world.
Eternal fire: a crater which is about 50′ in diameter. The fire lives on gas which escapes from cracks in the ground and has been burning for thousands of years. It is the subject of a story in the Old Testament. Remember Shadrack, Meshak and Abednego? The three people who refused to worship King Nebuchadnezzar’s golden idol? Well, because they refused, the King had them thrown into a fiery furnace which is believed to be this crater of fire. It is said that they survived unharmed, without any burns, because of their faith in God.
شـــاری كهركوك – كاركۆك
شاری كهركوك یهكێكه له شاره جوان و قهشهنگهكانی باشووری كوردستان و دهكهوێته نێوان هێڵی پــانی (٣٤,٦-٣٦)هوه, مێژووی ئهم شاره دهگهڕێتهوه بۆ چاخی بهردین, كه بهڵگهكانی ههندێ له ناوچهكانی ئهم شاره ڕاستی ئهم باسهمان بۆ ئهسهلمێنن, كه ههر لهسهر دهمهكانی بهردینهوه ئاوهدانی لهم ناوچهیهدا ههبووه و مرۆڤ فێری نیشتهجێ بوون و كۆمهڵگا دروست كردن بووه و كاری كشتوكاڵ و ئاژهڵداری كردووه, بهڵگهش بۆ ئهم باسه ئهوهیه له ناوچهی برده بلكه كه دوو كیلۆمهتر و نیو له باكوری شارۆچكهی چهمچهماڵهوه شتوممهكیان دۆزیوهتهوه كه پێشبینی دهكهن ئهو شوێنهیان وهك وهرشهیهك یان گهنجینهیهك بهكارهێنا بێت و جیاواز لهمهش له باكوری ڕۆژههڵات ئاسهوار دۆزراونهتهوه, و ههروهها گوندی چهرمۆ كهلهسر گردۆلكهیهكه به بهرزی (٢٣ پێ) كه نزیك شارۆچكهی چهمچهماڵه به ههمان شێوه ئاسهواری مرۆڤ و ژیانی تێدایه كه (١٠)چینی یهكهمی ژێرهوهی وا مهزهنده دهكرێت بگهڕێتهوه بۆ ژیانی چاخی بهردینی كۆن كه تهور و داس و شهن و دهستاریان بهكار هێناوه بۆ خۆراك كوتان, خهڵكی ئهم گونده مرواری اه قوڕ دروستكراویان بهكارهێناوه بۆ خۆ ڕازاندنهوه و بازنی له مهڕمهڕ دروستكراو و ههروهها مردووشیان له ژێر خانووهكانیاندا شاردۆتهوه كه وا دهگهیهنێت گوندی چهرمۆ مێژووهكهی دهگهڕێتهوه بۆ (٦٥٠٠) ساڵ پــێش زایــین , به درێژایی مێژوو شاری كاركۆك زۆر ڕووداوی داگیركاری و جهنگی بهسهر هاتووه و له سهردهمی پێش زاییندا دهسهڵاتی ئهكهد و سۆمهریهكان به تهواوی لهژێر دهسهڵاتی دهوڵهتهكانی وهك ئهشكانی و گۆتی و عیلام بوون بۆ ماوهی زیاتر له پێنج سهده كه گشتیان دهوڵتی كورد نهژاد بوون و سنووری دهسهڵاتیان به نزیكهیی له كهنداوهوه تــــا دهریای سپی بووه و ئهنادۆڵ و زههاو و میزۆپۆتامیاشیان له ژێر دهسهڵاتدا بووه.خاكی ئهم شاره سهرهڕای ئهوهی بهپیته بۆ كشتوكاڵی و به سامانی سروشتی ژێر زهویش دهوڵهمهنده, لهبهر ئهم هۆیه ئهمڕۆش له عێراقی فیدراڵدا پێی دهوترێت ناوچهی ماددهی (١٤٠) كه كوردهكان دهڵێن خاكی كوردانه به بهڵگهوه و توركمان و عهرهبهكانیش دهڵن خاكی ئێمهیه.
Sulaimaniya, the centre of the Sorani Kurdish culture, was founded in 1785 by Ibrahim Pasha, a Kurdish prince and is named after Sultan Suleiman (Soloman the Magnificent) who was the tenth longest reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1520-1566). It is located near the Iranian border and is surrounded by mountains – Baranan Mountain in the south, Tasluje Hills in the west and the Amzar, Goizja and Qaiwan Ranges in the north-east. The climate is semi-arid, being very hot and dry in the summer and very cold in the winter. The city is built around a long road, Salem Street, along which are dotted modern cafes.
Sulaimaniya is modern, up and coming and young and progressive. Compared to other cities of Kurdistan and Iraq it has a tolerant, open and relatively liberal society. In this city, the first Kurdish girls’ school was founded in 1915, the first four Kurdish newspapers were printed and it is said that the first diploma in history was issued. It is also the only city in Iraq to celebrate Fete de la Musique – world music day. Sulaimaniya is becoming more popular as a tourist destination (by Iraqis and non-Iraqis) because of its natural beauty and relative security.
پۆلیسی هاتوو چۆی سلێمانی
گهرماوهكانی شاری سلێمانی
یادی ٢٢٧ سال لهدایكبوونی شاری سلێمانی